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Black Holes

Everyday we look out upon the night sky, wondering and dreaming of what lies beyond our planet. The universe that we live in is so diverse and unique, and it interests us to learn about all the variance that lies beyond our grasp. Within this marvel of wonders our universe holds a mystery that is very difficult to understand because of the complications that arise when trying to examine and explore the principles of space. That mystery happens to be that of the ever clandestine, black hole.

This essay will hopefully give you the knowledge and understanding of the concepts, properties, and processes involved with the space phenomenon of the black hole. It will describe how a black hole is generally formed, how it functions, and the effects it has on the universe. In order to understand what exactly a black hole is, we must first take a look at the basis for the cause of a black hole. All black holes are formed from the gravitational collapse of a star, usually having a great, massive, core.

A star is created when huge, gigantic, gas clouds (interstellar material) bind together due to attractive forces and form a hot core, combined from all the energy of the two gas clouds. This energy produced is so great when it first collides, that a nuclear reaction occurs and the gases within the star start to burn continuously. The Hydrogen gas is usually the first type of gas consumed in a star and then other gas elements such as Carbon, Oxygen, and Helium are consumed.

This chain reaction fuels the star for millions or billions of years depending upon the amount of gases there are and the size of the star. The star manages to avoid collapsing at this point because of the equilibrium achieved by itself. The gravitational pull from the core of the star is equal to the gravitational pull of the gases forming a type of orbit( Hydrogen fusion), however when this equality is broken the star can go into several different stages. Usually if the star is small in mass, most of the gases will be consumed while some of it escapes.

This occurs because there is not a tremendous gravitational pull on those gases and therefore the star weakens and becomes smaller. It is then referred to as a White Dwarf. If the star was to have a larger mass however, then it may possibly Supernova, meaning that the nuclear fusion within the star simply goes out of control causing the star to explode. After exploding a fraction of the star is usually left (if it has not turned into pure gas) and that fraction of the star is known as a neutron star. A black hole is one of the last options that a star may take.

If the core of the star is so massive (approximately 10 solar masses; one solar mass being equal to the sun’s mass) then it is most likely that when the star’s gases are almost consumed those gases will collapse inward, forced into the core by the gravitational force laid upon them. After a black hole is created, the gravitational force continues to pull in space debris and other type of matters to help add to the mass of the core, making the hole stronger and more powerful. Most black holes tend to be in a consistent spinning motion.

This otion absorbs various matter and spins it within the ring (known as the Event Horizon) that is formed around the black hole. The matter keeps within the Event Horizon until it has spun into the centre where it is concentrated within the core adding to the mass. Such spinning black holes are known as Kerr Black Holes. Most black holes orbit around stars due to the fact that they once were a star, and this may cause some problems for the neighboring stars. If a black hole gets powerful enough it may actually pull a star into it and disrupt the orbit of many other stars.

The black hole could then grow even stronger (from the star’s mass) as to possibly absorb another. When a black hole absorbs a star, the star is first pulled into the Ergosphere, which sweeps all the matter into the Event Horizon, named for it’s flat horizontal appearance and because this happens to be the place where mostly all the action within the black hole occurs. When the star is passed on into the Event Horizon the light that the star endures is bent within the current and therefore cannot be seen in space.

At this exact point in time, high amounts of radiation are given off, that with the proper equipment can be detected and seen as an image of a black hole. Through this technique astronomers now believe that they have found a black hole known as Cygnus X1. This supposed black hole has a huge star orbiting around it; therefore we assume there must be a black hole that it is in orbit with. The first scientists to really take an in depth look at black holes and the collapsing of stars, were a professor, Robert Oppenheimer and his student Hartland Snyder, in the early nineteen hundreds.

They concluded on the basis of Einstein’s theory of relativity that if the speed of light was the utmost speed over any massive object, then nothing could escape a black hole once in its clutches. The name “black hole” was named such, because of the fact that light could not escape from the gravitational pull from the core, thus making the black hole impossible for humans to see without using technological advancements for measuring such things like radiation.

The second part of the word was named “hole” due to the fact that the actual hole, is where everything is absorbed and where the centre core presides. This core is the main part of the black hole where the mass is concentrated and appears purely black on all readings even through the use of radiation detection devices. Just recently a major discovery was found with the help of a device known as The Hubble Telescope. This telescope has just recently found what many astronomers believe to be a black hole, after being focused on a star orbiting empty space.

Several pictures were sent back to Earth from the telescope showing many computer enhanced pictures of various radiation fluctuations and other diverse types of readings that could be read from the area in which the black hole is suspected to be in. Several diagrams were made showing how astronomers believe that if somehow you were to survive through the centre of the black hole that there would be enough gravitational force to possible warp you to another end in the universe or possibly to another universe.

The creative ideas that can be hypothesized from this discovery are endless. Although our universe is filled with much unexplained, glorious, phenomenon, it is our duty to continue exploring them and to continue learning, but in the process we must not take any of it for granted. As you have read, black holes are a major topic within our universe and they contain so much curiosity that they could possibly hold unlimited uses.

Black holes are a sensation that astronomers are still very puzzled with. It seems that as we get closer to solving their existence and functions, we just end up with more and more questions. Although these questions just lead us into more and more unanswered problems we seek and find refuge into them, dreaming that maybe one day, one far off distant day, we will understand all the conceptions and we will be able to use the universe to our advantage and go where only our dreams could take us.

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Home » Black Holes

Black Holes

The oldest profession in the world is not what would be commonly accepted in society. Before a woman had a chance to sell her body, people looked up at the stars and wondered what they were. They made figures out of the shapes they made. As we advanced through scientific research many other doors opened that allowed us to see what it was the earth is existing in. Our constant need to explain what is happening comes from our want to control. Knowledge is power, and nothing is more unexplained that the universe. Time is interlocked and must be understood if we want to accomplish a deep nowledge of the cosmos.

Commonly it was thought that there was no such knowledge. The author Stephen Hawking had shown many otherwise. His books give a deep history and knowledge of how the universe exists. He also explains many others aspects of the cosmos and puts his works in an understandable writing style. He puts the largest accent on his studies of black holes. These are fascinating happening and the way to understanding the universe and several others can be found through the study of black holes. There are several features of black holes that makes them incredibly fascinating.

The first one would be the common misconception of how noting can escape a black hole. This is true in most points. If nothing can escape them, how does one detect a black hole? Stephen Hawking discovered a fascinating aspect using anti-particle properties. He found that when matter is pulled into a black hole by gravity matter is constantly being pulled apart. This causes the anti-parties of matter to be throw away at incredible rates. This happens at consistent times. The large amount of gamma radiation let off by this is how Mr. Hawking now finds black holes.

Another interesting oncept of black holes is they are can be formed other ways than by the end of a stars life. Stephen Hawking and his associates found that any nuclear explosion can cause the birth of a black hole. Hawking stated that is all the heavy water, a component used in nuclear weapons, was used to create a nuclear explosion a black hole the size of earth would be created. He also stated no one would be around to witness the creation. It would have been caused by the implosion of earth at a massive rate and the amount of energy produced by the nuclear explosion.

This had me wondering. Stephen Hawking also stated hat is a black how small enough not to disturb the orbit of earth existed close enough to earth that its power could be harnessed to produce huge amounts of energy. This made me wonder if the same concept could be used, except with all the wastes materials on earth. I do not know the exact physics of it all, but from Mr. Hawking explanations it seemed like it might work. Black holes were also explained by Stephen Hawking as how they transcended time. Apparently the massive gravitational pull creates a rip in the space-time continuum.

It is unknown what happens to matter when it is pulled into a black ime wise. All matter will be ejected into space eventually as the black hole loses itself. The smaller a black hole, the more matter is ejected. It may be an odd happening, but because of the larger black holes are harder to detect than smaller black holes. Mr. Hawking stated of how if an astronaught gets pulled into a black hole the tidal forces would stretch him into a long piece of spaghetti like person. However, his life would not end in the black hole.

Given enough time he would be eventually ejected into space as particles. All matter in a black hole will eventually be lost into space. The smaller a black hole is, the more matter is lost by the black hole. Stephen Hawking explained what is thought to have happened to a black hole when all its matter is lost. The hole in the space-time continuum would collapse and an explosion as massive as on of a supernova would happen. It would leave the tear in time. I wondered when the explosion would happen? Would it happen now, or ten to trillions of years from when it actually collapses.

The tear in time where would it exist? Until an actual black hole is found close enough to us I suppose these questions will remain uninsured. Stephen Hawking explains many other aspects of universal development in his books. The hot big bang theory of how our universe was created is the commonly accepted version of how our field of existence came to be. Stephen Hawking explains how the eventual fall of this explanation of this theory is that the energy would be limited to the heat of the single mass at the beginning.

This would lead to an eventual massive cooling of the universe and a lack of energy would be felt throughout space. It was also explained by Stephen Hawking of how other universes exist in other areas. How can infinite be limited? If our universe is infinite then how do other universes exist in other realms? It was also said of if the big bang had not happened the exact way it did, we would not exist the way we do now. In fact nothing would be the way it is now if the big bang would have been cooler or if its expansion had not been as rapid or had slowed down by even the smallest margin.

Stephen Hawking explains this as a group of monkeys pounding away at keyboards. Most of what they will produce will be nothing but garbage and gibberish. Once and a while though, they will create a masterpiece. What if our universe is the master iece and all the others have just been garbage. Anthropology would have us think different. It was a given example of who we can see ourselves as a rich man sees poverty in his neighborhood. They never do. Just as a poor man hears about a booming economy, he could say to himself what booming economy?.

We see the universe because we are who we are and where we are. That is the only reason we can question the facts of our existence. Sometimes we answer questions that were never supposed to be address. Space-time has always been in question. Time travel would give a mad unlimited powers. He could act as a god, change the world the way he wanted. If the outcome did not meet satisfaction, then travel back in time and re-work the problem until satisfaction. If time travel is possible, how come no one from the future has given us the secrets to do so.

Is it because the future has not been acted out yet, or has it been and we are simply the past and we are seeing it as the present? Time travel has been a long debated subject. Once such debate is that of can it even be done. Many models of the big bang suggest yes it can. The theory of relativity says that is cannot be done. The theory of relativity says hat wormholes do exist. Einstein called them bridges though. Stephen Hawking explained wormholes as something that creates a bridge between two regions of space. These wormholes are shorter than the actual distance between the two regions.

Space can be though of as a piece of paper being folder over and over itself. It could have many layers to it. Wormholes might simply connect two regions of space that seem to be millions upon millions of miles apart from each other. Going through a wormhole would allow you to reach a point before you actually left. If you leave the wormhole to come ack you would come back to your point of origin before you actually left to go anywhere. You would then be in your history. There is a lot of controversy over what would happen to you at this point.

Stephen Hawking gave many point: would you become helpless as history took you over. You would have no control over what you did as you would simply be acting out past that way it was supposed to be. Or would you be completely independent in your actions. You could have control to a point. History could rewrite itself to a point. Or would you have major repercussions upon history. If you did ravel through history why was is not written in before it happened. If one did travel through space it would already be written in time of what happened.

The example given was what would happen if you travel back in time and killed your great-great grandfather. This would cause a ripple in time. If this happened it would have been written in time and you would go back in time and be unable to control yourself as you are just acting out history as the way it is written. If you did kill your past relative you would end your life yourself, thus making the even never happen. You still continue to exist though, so how ould you have killed him? The sheer thought of this is mind-boggling. It is a paradox of what would happen.

Maybe this is why we have not been told of how to build a time machine. Our primitive ways and violent acts, why would we give ourselves this weapon of infinite power? Another way of explaining time travel is that all things happen, just in different time fields. A scientist named Richard Feynman stated that quantum theory is simply a sum of the physics. All things happen, we simply do not expierivce them all. If time travel was possible then it would be possible to go into a different time slot and see hings the way they could happen if different happenings did occur.

Time travel is a concept that should not be messed with and should not be taken lightly. If someone traveled though time and infinite number of things could change just by the slightest occurrence. Until we fully understand the repercussions, time travel should be understood, Stephen Hawking is a well known professor at Cambridge University. He has made many advances in the understandings of the cosmos, time, and the universe. I would recommend his writings to anyone with an open mind and with a wanting to learn.

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