Art History vocabulary
Case Mila Atmospheric perspective – a method of depicting three-dimensional space on a two- dimensional surface which mimics the way the human eye sees; objects further away re blurry and less distinct with colors that are darker while objects near us are sharply defined and have brighter colors Atrium – the central courtyard of a Roman house Avian-garden – cutting edge, progressive, revolutionary, new and different Axis mind – center of the world; Joins the earth with the cosmos and serves as a vital link between humans and the heavens Barrel vault – an arch extended into space Basilica – in ancient Rome, the basilica and a civic donation and was used tort a gathering place for law courts and a public space for civil affairs; typically Roman classical were large and are characterized by a nave, side aisles, apse(s), and clever Bird’s eye perspective – an elevated view of an object from above, almost as if you are a bird in a tree looking down at the scene Black-Figure Vase-painting technique – a type of Greek vase-painting technique; the figures are painted in a black slip, leaving the background the red of the clay; details are incised; see Exegesis and the Francis Vase Book of Hours – a devotional prayer book that was used to recite prayers, especially in the Medieval period Cantilever – a large over-hanging eave (see Frank Lloyd Wright’s Robe House)
Cellar – the interior room of a Greek or Roman temple; often the cellar contained the cult statue of the deity Chiaroscuro – a dramatic contrast between light and dark Classical Orders (see diagram below) – see Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian; see pediment, triptych, mettle, untreatable, and frieze; be able to identify the order and its parts Clerestory – the upper windows of a basilica Coffers – a recessed decorative panel that is used to reduce the weight of dome or vaults; see the Pantheon Collage – a composition made of cut and pasted scraps of materials (French: cooler -to stick) Complementary colors – red and green; orange and blue; yellow and violet Composition – how the figures and forms in a work of art are arranged Content – the subject matter or content of a work of art Context – Where was the work of art originally displayed or used? When (culture, history, society)?
Contrasts – a stance where the weight is on one leg and the other is at rest Cool colors – greens, blues, and violets Corinthian Order – see “Classical Orders;” this order’s capital is characterized by acanthus leaves; the Romans preterm deed this order Crossing – in a Christian basilica, this is where the nave and transept meet Cubism – an art movement that was founded by Georges Braque’s and Pablo Picasso in France in the early 20th century; this movement faceted and analyzed forms and claimed that reality has many Dada – an art movement that emerged after World War I; artists were trying to come to grips with the destruction and devastation of the war and because reason and logic had led to WWW, they abandoned those qualities and instead focused on the absurd, intuitive, and humorous; see Marcel Decamp Ding – a common shape of Chinese ritual bronzes; the ding has four legs and was meant to hold offerings of food Diptych – see “Altarpiece”
Doric Order – see “Classical Orders;” Doric order is the simplest classical order with an undecorated, pillow-like capital; utilizes alternating triptychs and mottoes in the untreatable Dome – an arch rotated 360 degrees; see the Pantheon Dooms – a Roman house Earth Works – an art movement in the asses and asses which used the earth as its medium; see Robert Smithson Spiral Jetty Embroidery – needlework En plain air – painting outdoors Untreatable – in Classical orders, the horizontal elements above the columns and capitals Etching – a printmaking technique which uses a metal plate; the design is made with acid Febrile technique – from the French word, “fragile,” this means handcrafted; see Tiffany lamps First Impressionist Exhibition in 1874 – thirty progressive and experimental artists exhibited here including Monet and Renoir; they wanted to paint modern subjects in a modern way Fake or Forgery – a work to art that was created Witt a deliberate intent to deceive and are usually presented falsely as a product of another time or artist Flying buttress (see diagram below, labeled “A”) – an exterior masonry structure that opposes the lateral thrust of an arch or a vault; a flying buttress consists of an inclined member carried on an arch Flying buttress Foreshortening – linear perspective applied to human or animal forms receding into depth Forum – a gathering place or market place in ancient Rome Form – the way a work of art looks (composition, medium, size, colors, line, texture, shapes, etc. ) Fresco – painting on wet plaster; usually fresco paintings have less saturated colors; you have to work quickly when working in the fresco technique so you are unable to get a lot of detail Frieze – the middle element of the untreatable, usually decorated with sculpture; characteristic of the Ionic order
Genre – a scene of everyday life or a daily task Great Epochs Approach – a traditional public art museum typically arranges their works of art according to this approach; ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, and the Italian Renaissance are emphasized Hieratic scale or hierarchy of scale – the most important figure is depicted as the largest History painting – a painting that takes its subject from ancient history, mythology, or the Bible and has a normalizing or didactic content Horror vacuum – the fear of leaving any empty spaces Hue – the name of the color according to the categories of the color wheel Humanism – a philosophy that emerged during the Renaissance that saw the potential in individuals; the accomplishments of individuals were praised and acknowledged; this gave rise to artistic geniuses and the increased status of artists Iconoclasm – deliberate destruction of religious or political icons, usually with religious or political motives; usually iconoclasm accompanies major religious or political change Iconoclast – those who engage in or support iconoclasm Iconography: symbols; objects that symbolize something Impasto – a heavy build-up of paint
Impressionism – a late 19th century art movement that wanted to show modern life in a modern way; these artists were progressive in terms of technique and subject Ionic Order – see “Classical Orders;” more decorative order with a capital composed of a volute scroll; the Ionic order is characterized by a continuous frieze in the Sours (plural Koori) – a standing nude male freestanding sculpture in ancient Greece Light – actual light that hits a work of art (like a sculpture or building) or the illusion of light Linear perspective – a scientific way of creating the illusion of a three-dimensional oral on a two-dimensional surface; artists create a horizon line, vanishing point, and orthogonal to help plot out the space Line – the path left by a moving point; helps to define forms or to show direction or movement Longitudinal plan – based on a rectangle (see the Parthenon) Mass – three-dimensional form that occupies a volume of space Mettle – see “Classical Orders;” the carved rectangular panel between the triptychs of a Doric order temple Minaret – the tower in Islamic architecture Mosaic – a design made by cementing small pieces (teaser) of hard, colored substances (e. G. Lass, ceramic, stone) to a base Nave – the central aisle of a basilica Non-representational – a work of art that has no recognizable images, symbols, or figures in it (see Jackson Pollock) Oil paints – a type to paint which binds ground pigments TN oil WI Palette – a device used to grind cosmetics Pattern – any decorative, repetitive design or motif Pediment – a triangular gable found over major architectural elements, often decorated with sculpture Performance Art – an art movement which gets rid of the art object itself because the artist uses his/her own body as the medium in a performance or activity; see Joseph